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EMF OP 33: A Comparison of Aggregate Energy Demand Models for Global Warming Policy Analyses

This paper compares the treatment of the demand for fuels (aggregate energy) in 11 models that are being used for analyzing the economic and energy-sector impacts of global warming policy. Some models explicitly consider the linkages between the economy and the energy sector (energy-economy models), while others focus on the energy sector in more detail (energy models). The paper discusses demand model inputs and outputs, time horizon, regional and sectoral disaggregation, energy consumer behavior, energy using capital stock and energy efficiency improvements, and incorporating uncertainty.