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EMF WP 12.2: Results from the ICF Global-Macro Model: Estimation of Costs to Meet the CO2 Emission Targets in the Energy Sector

This paper summarizes an approach to estimating the costs of meeting different CO2 emission targets in the energy sector by using the U.S. EPA Atmospheric Stabilization Framework (ASF), detailed country studies of energy use developed by the EPA and the Energy and Industry Subgroup (EIS) in the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and energy supply assumptions from the Energy Modeling Forum Study Number 12 (EMF 12). This approach explicitly addresses the impact of estimated zero or low cost energy use reduction potential.